Forest has a very great service to the survival of living things, especially humans. One of the forest service is to take carbon dioxide from the air and oxygen necessary menggantimya with other creatures. So the forest is called the lungs of the world. So, if too much forest is damaged, there will not be enough oxygen for breathing. Based on Act No. 41 of 1999 on forestry, which is the forest ecosystem is a unitary form of lands comprising biological resources, dominated by trees in their natural environment, the one with the other can not be separated

A. Types of Forests in Indonesia Based on Climate:

  1. Tropical Rain Forest, there is a tropical forest with very high rainfall. This type of forest is very rich in flora and fauna. In this area, diversity of plants is very high. Area of tropical rainforest in Indonesia, approximately 66 million hectares of tropical rainforest serves as the lungs of the world. There are tropical rain forest in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua.
  2. Monsoon forest, also called monsoon forest. Monsoon forests have grown in areas of high rainfall, but has a long dry season. In the dry season, plants in monsoon forest usually shed their leaves. Monsoon forest usually have similar plants, such as teak forests, bamboo forests, and cottonwood forest. Monsoon forest is widely available in Central Java and East Java.

B. Types of Forests in Indonesia Based on Climate Variations, Soil Type, and Landscape:

  1. Tropical Forest Group:
    • A. High Mountain Rain Forest
    • B. Low Mountain Rain Forest
    • C. Lowland Tropical Forest
    • D. Forest Subalpin
    • E. Forest Beach
    • F. Mangrove Forest
    • G. Swamp Forest
    • H. Forest heath
    • I. Lime Stone Forest
    • J. Forests in stone Ultra basik
  2. Monsoon Forest Group
    • A. Monsoon Forests Autumn Leaves
    • B. Monsoon Forests are always Green (Evergren)
    • C. Sabana

C. Types of Forests in Indonesia Based on the Establishment :
  1. Natural forest, which is a field that grew naturally trees that overall biodiversity is the living communion of nature and its natural environment. Natural forests are also called primary forest, the forest is formed without human intervention.
  2. Called artificial forest plantations, the forest is formed due to human intervention.

D. Types of Forests in Indonesia Based Status :
  1. State forest, the forest is located on land that is not encumbered land rights.
  2. Forest rights, namely the forest are on land encumbered land rights. Land rights, such as property rights (HM), Right (HGU), and the Right to Build (HGB).
  3. Indigenous forests, namely state forests within the territory of indigenous peoples.

E. Types of Forests in Indonesia Based on Type of plant:

  1. Homogeneous Forests (kind of), that is their area of forest more than 75% is covered by one type of vegetation. For example: teak forests, bamboo forests, and pine forest.
  2. Heterogeneous Forest (Mixed), the forest consists of various plant species.

F. Types of Forests in Indonesia Based on Functions:

  1. Protected Forest
    Protected forests are forest areas that have a principal function as protection of life support systems.
  2. Forest Conservation.
    Conservation forest is a forest area with certain characteristics, which has the main function of preserving the diversity of plants and animals and ecosystems. Forest conservation consists of:
    • A. Natural Sanctuary Forest is a forest with certain characteristics that have a main function as an area of preservation of plant diversity, wildlife and ecosystems and serves as a buffer area of life. Nature reserve forest area consists of nature reserves, wildlife reserves and Hunting Park.
    • B. Forest conservation is a region with a particular characteristic, whether on land or in waters that have a protective function of life support systems, preserving species diversity of plants and animals, and sustainable use of biological resources and ecosystems. Nature conservation area consists of national parks, grand forest parks (Tahura) and nature tourism park.
  3. Forest Production
    Production forests are forest areas designated for production of forest products to meet the needs of society in general and development, industry, and exports in particular. Production forest is divided into three, namely, limited production forest (HPT), permanent production forest (HP), and convertible production forest (HPK).
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